Stromal cells are key structural cells that construct tissue microenvironments, regulate tissue repair and provide critical growth and differentiation factors. Stromal cells are now recognized as central regulators of immune responses in lymphoid organs and in inflamed tissues. Targeting of stromal cells thus holds great promise for improving human health. The field of stromal cell research has gained substantial traction towards clinical application through the dissection of fundamental processes underpinning stromal cell function and the description of stromal cell heterogeneity in patients. This meeting will highlight cutting-edge science and provide insight into recent developments towards therapeutic stromal cell targeting in cancer and chronic inflammatory diseases.